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dc.contributor.authorBilal, Essaid
dc.contributor.authorRuiz Cánovas, Carlos 
dc.contributor.authorNieto Liñán, José Miguel 
dc.contributor.authorHaneklaus, Nils
dc.identifier.citationBilal, E., Bellefqih, H., Bourgier, V., Mazouz, H., Dumitraş, D.-G., Bard, F., Laborde, M., Caspar, J. P., Guilhot, B., Iatan, E.-L., Bounakhla, M., Iancu, M. A., Marincea, Ş., Essakhraoui, M., Li, B., Diwa, R. R., Ramirez, J. D., Chernysh, Y., Chubur, V., … Haneklaus, N. (2023). Phosphogypsum circular economy considerations: A critical review from more than 65 storage sites worldwide. In Journal of Cleaner Production (Vol. 414, p. 137561). Elsevier BV.
dc.description.abstractNearly 300 million t of phosphogypsum (PG) are produced every year as a byproduct from phosphate fertilizer production worldwide. Approximately 58% of the PG are stacked, 28% are discharged in coastal waters and only 14% are further processed. This critical review provides an overview of the physical-chemical properties of PG produced from sedimentary and magmatic phosphate ore worldwide using various analytical tools. Results from more than 25 years of work on PG at ´Ecole des Mines de Saint-´Etienne are presented and critically discussed. In total PG samples from 67 industrial storage sites around the world and PG samples synthesized under different conditions in the laboratory have been considered. The low radioactivity present in PG (particularly PG produced from sedimentary phosphate rock) was identified as the main challenge to using PG as a raw material in construction. Water-soluble and volatile chemical compounds were identified as the main challenge to environmentally sound PG management. Although PG does (in most cases) not pose an immediate threat to the environment the authors recommend processing all PG instead of storing or disposing it, to eliminate potential long-term risks and utilize a relevant secondary resource.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipFrench National Research Agency (ANR), Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, Lafarge Division Plaster, OCP Group, Technology Agency of the Czech Republic (TA CR) [Grant Number: TH79020003] and German Federal Ministry of Education and Research [Project Number: 033RU020A] support for this project is offered under the coordination of the ERA-MIN3 action, which has received funding from the European Union under the Horizon 2020 Program [European Commission Grant Agreement No. 101003575]. Besides, this work also received support by: the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport of the Czech Republic (8J22AT005), the Austrian Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Research (BMBWF) through Austria's Agency for Education and Internationalization (OeAD) [Grant Number: Africa UniNet P006 and P058 as well as WTZ CZ 14/2022, HR 09/2022 and TW 01/2021], the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research funding under Bridge2ERA2021 [Grant No. 100579052] and the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through the project VALOREY [MINECO; RTI 2018-101276-J-I00]. C.R. Cánovas further thanks the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation for the Postdoctoral Fellowship granted under application reference RYC2019-027949-I.es_ES
dc.relation.isversionofPublisher’s version
dc.rightsAtribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 España*
dc.subject.otherCircular economyes_ES
dc.subject.otherCleaner productiones_ES
dc.titlePhosphogypsum circular economy considerations: A critical review from more than 65 storage sites worldwidees_ES
dc.subject.unesco3308 Ingeniería y Tecnología del Medio Ambientees_ES

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