Targeted and untargeted metabolomic analysis of Procambarus clarkii exposed to a “chemical cocktail” of heavy metals and diclofenac
CitationG. Rodríguez-Moro, C. Román-Hidalgo, S. Ramírez-Acosta, N. Aranda-Merino, J.L. Gómez-Ariza, N. Abril, M.A. Bello-López, R. Fernández-Torres, T. García-Barrera, Targeted and untargeted metabolomic analysis of Procambarus clarkii exposed to a “chemical cocktail” of heavy metals and diclofenac, Chemosphere, Volume 293, 2022, 133410, ISSN 0045-6535, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.133410
AbstractWater pollution poses an important problem, but limited information is available about the joined effects of xenobiotics of different chemical groups to evaluate the real biological response. Procambarus clarkii (P. clarkii) has been demonstrated to be a good bioindicator for assessing the quality of aquatic ecosystems. In this work, we studied the bioaccumulation of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and diclofenac (DCF) in different tissues of P. clarkii during 21 days after the exposure to a “chemical cocktail” of As, Cd and DCF, and until 28 days considering a depuration period. In addition, a combined untargeted and targeted metabolomic analysis was carried out to delve the metabolic impairments caused as well as the metabolization of DCF. Our results indicate that As and Cd were mainly accumulated in the hepatopancreas followed by gills and finally abdominal muscle. As and Cd show a general trend to increase the concentration throughout the exposure experience, while a decrease in the concentration of these elements is observed after 7 days of the depuration process. This is also the case in the abdominal muscle for Cd, but not for As and DCF, which increased the concentration in this tissue in the depuration phase. The hepatopancreas showed the greatest number of metabolic pathways affected. Thus, we observed a crucial bioaccumulation of xenobiotics and impairments of metabolites in different tissues. This is the first study combining the exposure to metals and pharmaceutically active compounds in P. clarkii by untargeted metabolomics including the biotransformation of DCF.