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dc.contributor.authorQuerol, X.
dc.contributor.authorAlastuey Urós, José Andrés
dc.contributor.authorViana, M.
dc.contributor.authorMoreno, T.
dc.contributor.authorReche, C.
dc.contributor.authorMinguillón, M. C.
dc.contributor.authorRipoll, A.
dc.contributor.authorPandolfi, M.
dc.contributor.authorAmato, F.
dc.contributor.authorKaranasiou, A.
dc.contributor.authorPérez, N.
dc.contributor.authorPey, J.
dc.contributor.authorCusack, M.
dc.contributor.authorVázquez, R.
dc.contributor.authorPlana, F.
dc.contributor.authorDall’Osto, M.
dc.contributor.authorRosa Díaz, Jesús de la 
dc.contributor.authorSánchez de la Campa Verdona, Ana María 
dc.contributor.authorFernández Camacho, Rocío 
dc.contributor.authorRodríguez, S.
dc.contributor.authorPio, C.
dc.contributor.authorAlados-Arboleda, L.
dc.contributor.authorTitos, G.
dc.contributor.authorArtíñano, B.
dc.contributor.authorSalvador, P.
dc.contributor.authorGarcía dos Santos, S.
dc.contributor.authorFernández Patier, R.
dc.date.accessioned2013-11-12T12:02:23Z
dc.date.available2013-11-12T12:02:23Z
dc.date.issued2013
dc.identifier.citationQuerol, X., Alastuey Urós, J.A., Viana, M., Moreno, T., Reche, C., Minguillón, M.C., Ripoll, A., Pandolfi, M., Amato, F., Karanasiou, A., Pérez, N., Pey, J., Cusack, M., Vázquez, R., Plana, F., Dall’Osto, M., Rosa Díaz, J. de la, Sánchez de la Campa Verdona, Fernández Camacho, R., Rodríguez, S., Pio, C., Alados-Arboledas, L., Titos, G., Artiñano, B., Salvador, P., García dos Santos, S., Fernández Patier, R.: "Variability of carbonaceous aerosols in remote, rural, urban and industrial environments in Spain: implications for air quality policy". Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. Nº 13, págs. 6185–6206 (2013). ISSN 1680-7316. doi:10.5194/acp-13-6185-2013en_US
dc.identifier.issn1680-7316
dc.identifier.issn1680-7324 (electrónico)
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10272/7386
dc.description.abstractWe interpret here the variability of levels of carbonaceous aerosols based on a 12 yr database from 78 monitoring stations across Spain specially compiled for this article. Data did not evidence any spatial trends of carbonaceous aerosols across the country. Conversely, results show marked differences in average concentrations from the cleanest, most remote sites (around 1 μgm−3 of non-mineral carbon (nmC), mostly made of organic carbon (OC) with very little elemental carbon (EC), around 0.1 μgm−3; OC/ EC = 12–15), to the highly polluted major cities (8–10 μgm−3 of nmC; 3– 4 μgm−3 of EC; 4–5 μgm−3 of OC; OC/ EC = 1–2). Thus, urban (and very specific industrial) pollution was found to markedly increase levels of carbonaceous aerosols in Spain, with much lower impact of biomass burning and of biogenic emissions. Correlations between yearly averaged OC/ EC and EC concentrations adjust very well to a potential equation (OC = 3.37 EC0.326, R2 = 0.8). A similar equation is obtained when including average concentrations obtained at other European sites (OC = 3.60EC0.491, R2 = 0.7). A clear seasonal variability in OC and EC concentrations was detected. Both OC and EC concentrations were higher during winter at the traffic and urban sites, but OC increased during the warmer months at the rural sites. Hourly equivalent black carbon (EBC) concentrations at urban sites accurately depict road traffic contributions, varying with distance from road, traffic volume and density, mixing-layer height and wind speed. Weekday urban rush-hour EBC peaks are mimicked by concentrations of primary gaseous emissions from road traffic, whereas a single midday peak is characteristic of remote and rural sites. Decreasing annual trends for carbonaceous aerosols were observed between 1999 and 2011 at a large number of stations, probably reflecting the impact of the EURO4 and EURO5 standards in reducing the diesel PM emissions. This has resulted in some cases in an increasing trend for NO2 / (OC + EC) ratios as these standards have been much less effective for the abatement of NOx exhaust emissions in passenger diesel cars. This study concludes that EC, EBC, and especially nmC and OC+ EC are very good candidates for new air quality standards since they cover both emission impact and health-related issue.en_US
dc.language.isoengen_US
dc.publisherEuropean Geosciences Unionen_US
dc.rightsAtribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 España
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/es/
dc.subject.otherCarbonaceous aerosolsen_US
dc.subject.otherAiren_US
dc.subject.otherQualityen_US
dc.subject.otherSpainen_US
dc.subject.otherAerosoles carbonososen_US
dc.subject.otherAireen_US
dc.subject.otherCalidaden_US
dc.subject.otherEspañaen_US
dc.titleVariability of carbonaceous aerosols in remote, rural, urban and industrial environments in Spain: implications for air quality policyen_US
dc.typeinfo:eu-repo/semantics/articleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.5194/acp-13-6185-2013
dc.rights.accessRightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.relation.projectIDinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/FP7/262254


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