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dc.contributor.authorSánchez de la Campa Verdona, Ana María 
dc.contributor.authorMoreno, T.
dc.contributor.authorRosa Díaz, Jesús de la 
dc.contributor.authorAlastuey Urós, José Andrés
dc.contributor.authorQuerol, X.
dc.identifier.citationAlastuey Urós, J.A., Rosa Díaz, J. de la, Moreno, T., Sánchez de la Campa Verdona, A.M.: "Size distribution and chemical composition of metalliferous stack emissions in the San Roque petroleum refinery complex, southern Spain". Journal of Hazardous Materials. Vol. 190, n. 1-3, pág. 713-722 (2011). ISSN 0304-3894en_US
dc.description.abstractWe demonstrate that there is great variation in the size range and chemical composition of metalliferous particulate matter (PM) present within petrochemical complex chimney stacks. Cascade impactor PM samples from seven size ranges (17, 14, 5, 2.5, 1.3, 0.67, and 0.33 mu m) were collected from inside stacks within the San Roque complex which includes the largest oil refinery in Spain. SEM analysis demonstrates the PM to be mostly carbonaceous and aluminous fly ash and abundant fine metalliferous particles. The metals with the most extreme concentrations averaged over all size ranges were Ni (up to 3295 mu g m(-3)), Cr (962 mu g m(-3)), V (638 mu g m(-3)), Zn (225 mu g m(-3)), Mo (91 mu g m(-3)), La (865 mu g m(-3)), and Co (94 mu g m(-3)). Most metal PM are strongly concentrated into the finest fraction (<0.33 mu m), although emissions from some processes, such as purified terephthallic acid (PTA) production, show coarser size ranges. The fluid catalytic cracking stack shows high concentrations of La (>200 mu g m(-3) in PM(0.67-1.3)). Cr and Ni in a relatively coarse PM size range (0.7-14 mu m). Our unique database, directly sampled from chimney stacks, confirms that oil refinery complexes such as San Roque are a potent source of a variety of fine, deeply inhalable metalliferous atmospheric PM emissionsen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis study was supported by the Department of the Environment and the Department of Innovation, Science and Enterprise (project RNM2007-02729) of the Autonomous Government of Andalusia, and Projects GRACCIE-CSD2007 of the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation. The authors are indebted to Juan Contreras, Francisca Godoy and Antonio Lozano of the Department of Air Quality in the Environmental Office of Andalusia Government for their collaboration with this study. Thanks are due to Wes Gibbons for his revision of the manuscript.
dc.rightsAtribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 España
dc.titleSize distribution and chemical composition of metalliferous stack emissions in the San Roque petroleum refinery complex, southern Spainen_US
dc.relation.projectIDinfo:eu-repo/grantAggreement/Department of Innovation, Science and Enterprise of the Autonomous Government of Andalusia [RNM2007-02729]
dc.relation.projectIDinfo:eu-repo/grantAggreement/Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation [GRACCIE-CSD2007]

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