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dc.contributor.authorGázquez González, Manuel Jesús 
dc.contributor.authorMantero, J.
dc.contributor.authorMosqueda Peña, Fernando 
dc.contributor.authorVioque, I.
dc.contributor.authorGarcía-Tenorio, R.
dc.contributor.authorBolívar Raya, Juan Pedro
dc.identifier.citationGazquez, M. J., Mantero, J., Mosqueda, F., Vioque, I., García-Tenorio, R., & Bolívar, J. P. (2021). Radiological and chemical risks by waste scales generated in the titanium dioxide industry. Chemosphere, 274, 129732.
dc.description.abstractAlong the industrial process devoted to the production of titanium dioxide pigments by using ilmenite as main raw material, small residues amounts are generated, remaining clearly enriched in natural radionuclides and chemical pollutants. Between them, we can remark the scales enriched in both radium isotopes and lead, which are formed in the internal walls of pipes and some equipment. These scales are radiological anomalies that demand its mineralogical, elemental and radiometric characterization as a basis for a detailed radiological and toxicological assessment from the occupational and public point of view. In this work, several scales collected in a TiO2 pigment production plant in South of Spain have been mineralogically characterized by XRD, while information about their elemental composition and morphology have been obtained by applying the XRF and SEM techniques. In addition, radiometric determinations have been performed by gamma-ray and alpha-particle spectrometry. The performed study indicates that the radiological doses received due to the scales by the workers performing its conventional activities are clearly lower than 1 mSv/y. Special dosimetric and chemical controls could be needed for the workers in charge of the maintenance labours (which include the removal of the scales) if these workers belong to an external company devoted to perform maintenance operations in several NORM industries.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipThis research was partially supported by the Spanish Government Department of Science and Technology (MINECO) through the project "Fluxes of Radionuclides Emitted by the Phosphogypsum Piles Located at Huelva; Assessment of the Dispersion, Radiological Risks and Remediation Proposals" (Ref. CTM 2015-68628- R), ), and the project of the Regional Government of Andalusia called “Basic processes regulating the fractionations and enrichments of natural radionuclides under acid mine drainage conditions” (Ref.: UHU-1255876) and the project of the University of Cadiz called "New methodogy of radioisotope isolation with environmental interest for its measurement by alpha spectrometry" (Ref: PR2019-024). The authors acknowledges to the staff of CITIUS at the University of Seville their help in the application of the X-ray techniques.es_ES
dc.rightsAtribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 España*
dc.subject.otherMajor and heavy metalses_ES
dc.subject.otherNatural radionuclideses_ES
dc.subject.otherExternal and internal doseses_ES
dc.subject.otherRadiological riskes_ES
dc.subject.otherChemical riskes_ES
dc.titleRadiological and chemical risks by waste scales generated in the titanium dioxide industryes_ES
dc.subject.unesco23 Químicaes_ES

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