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dc.contributor.authorMilford, Celia
dc.contributor.authorFernández Camacho, Rocío 
dc.contributor.authorSánchez de la Campa Verdona, Ana María 
dc.contributor.authorRodríguez, Sergio
dc.contributor.authorCastell, Nuria
dc.contributor.authorMarrero, Carlos
dc.contributor.authorBustos, J. J.
dc.contributor.authorRosa Díaz, Jesús de la 
dc.contributor.authorStein, Ariel
dc.identifier.citationMilford, C., Fernández Camacho, R., Sánchez de la Campa, A.M., Rodríguez, S., Castellc, N., Marrero, C., Bustos, J.J., Rosa Díaz, J. de la, Steind, A.: "Black Carbon aerosol measurements and simulation in two cities in south-west Spain". Atmospheric Environment. Vol. 126, págs. 55–65, (2016). DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.11.026en_US
dc.description.abstractBlack carbon (BC) has been simulated for south-west Spain with the air quality model CAMx driven by the MM5 meteorological model, with a spatial resolution of 2 km × 2 km and a temporal resolution of 1 h. The simulation results were evaluated against hourly equivalent black carbon (EBC) concentrations obtained in the cities of Seville and Huelva for a winter period (January 2013) and a summer period (June 2013). A large seasonal variability was observed in PM2.5 EBC concentration in the two cities, with higher concentrations in wintertime; summertime EBC concentrations were typically less than half those of the wintertime. The model captured the large diurnal, seasonal and day to day variability in these urban areas, mean biases ranged between −0.14 and 0.07 μg m−3 in winter and between 0.01 and 0.29 μg m−3 in summer while hourly PM2.5 EBC observations ranged between 0.03 μg m−3 to 10.9 μg m−3. The diurnal variation in EBC concentrations was bimodal, with a morning and evening peak. However, the EBC evening peak was much smaller in summer than in winter. The modelling analysis demonstrates that the seasonal and day to day variability in EBC concentration in these urban areas is primarily driven by the variation in meteorological conditions. An evaluation of the role of regional versus local contributions to EBC concentrations indicates that in the medium size city of Seville, local on-road sources are dominant, whereas in the small size city of Huelva, local as well as regional sources produce a similar contribution. Considering the large diesel share of the vehicle fleet in Spain (currently ∼ 56%), we conclude that continued reduction of BC from diesel on-road sources in these urban areas is indeed a priority, and we suggest that targeted mitigation strategies, for example reducing the heaviest emitters in wintertime, would yield the greatest benefits.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThe authors gratefully acknowledge funding from the Department of Innovation, Science and Enterprise of the Government of Andalusia through the research projects SIMAND (P07-RNM-02729) and (2011RNM-7800) and from the Department of Environment, Andalusian Regional Government (project: 199/2011/C/00). In addition, we thank the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness for funding through the project POLLINDUST (CGL2011-26259). We would also like to thank the Government of Andalusia for providing data from their Air Quality Network and from their Atmospheric Emissions Inventory and AEMET for providing meteorological data. We also thank Dr. Fantine Ngan for providing the GEOS-Chem data.
dc.rightsAtribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 España*
dc.subject.otherBlack carbonen_US
dc.subject.otherAir qualityen_US
dc.subject.otherModel evaluationen_US
dc.titleBlack Carbon aerosol measurements and simulation in two cities in south-west Spainen_US
dc.relation.projectIDinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/Department of Innovation, Science and Enterprise of the Government of Andalusia through the research projects SIMAND [P07-RNM-02729, 2011RNM-7800]
dc.relation.projectIDinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/Department of Environment, Andalusian Regional Government [199/2011/C/00]
dc.relation.projectIDSpanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness [CGL2011-26259]

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